Dating a Document through Watermarks

Dating paper

The following is a procedure by which the three comparison methods are conducted. These procedures have been used for over ten years. Find a practical transparent the age ranges for kodak camera had expired photographic paper age of the dating.

There are various libraries of

Eight plugs were in each vial from the accelerated aging method above. Manufacturers used two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations.

Manufacturers used two types ofThe issue ofWhenever a relative ink age test

Another solvent for non-ballpoint inks to use is ethanol and water mixed at a ratio of one to one. The solution contained in the micropipette was then spotted on the plate. The time can be slightly more or less, however it should be optimized to allow for the best separation of the date tags.

Eight plugs were in each

There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper. The issue of the identification was one of many issues that were put in front of a California Federal Judge to decide upon. Whenever a relative ink age test is conducted it is imperative that the same ink formulation from the same type of paper comprise both samples. The samples are then taken, extracted, spotted, dried, developed, and dried just as described previously.

Other times the results will disclose a range of a few years as possibilities the ink could have been made. The next sample can then be spotted in the same manner by using a new pipette. Common backer include self-healing cutting boards, filter paper, plain card stock or even glass. This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a known library of inks to determine the manufacturer and formula of the ink.

Dating kodak paper - Sojourner Center

The most common mobile phase solvent system used is Solvent System I. This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. The second way to date inks is by how long the ink has been on the paper, this is a dynamic approach to ink dating that measures changes over time to the ink as it sits on paper. The doctor denied writing these entries.

Typically one microliter of solution spotted at a time will accomplish this, allowing about minutes between one-microliter applications. This was done in the laboratory in Hong Kong. These results should then be photographed using ultra-violet light and color film for presentation at a later time if required. Based on the identification of formulation, which will be discussed next, it may be possible to exclude some of the possibilities and further narrow the range sometimes to only one year.

Allow the plate to cool to room temperature for a few minutes. The opposing expert concluded the questioned ink was manufactured by Bic.

The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. Any differences that the examiner attributes to differences in batches when making an identification or elimination should be demonstrable in some manner. Other solvents can be used for either type of ink if desired as long as some or most of the ink is extracted from the samples.

This type of examination is very rarely to never used in actual casework currently. Therefore, the entry could not have been written in as purported by the author but had to have been written sometime in or later.